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DIN Tension Rod. Tabela Torques de Aperto. Tabla HilosxPulgada BM. Bolt, Nut, Washer. Direct n Indirect Cost. Landslide and Land Subsidence Hazards to Pipelines. Surface Finish Tensile Tests. Guidance to SDOs – Pipe Movement and Solution Root Area Formula – Bickford2.

Root Area Formula – Bickford1. Tancet Eligibility Critical Line Selection – Reliance. SOM Week12 Solution. Elliptical Head Dimensions. Sample2 Drawing. Palmgren – Miner’s Rule.

SOM Week 10 Solution. SOM Week 4 Solution. SOM Week 6 Solution. SOM Week 8 Solution. Seminar Topics. Bx Media Plus Document File. Ball valve Design Feature. API Formulas. Welding-standards Torque Values.

Asme Section Ix. Asme Sec Viii Ques. Jpghrsghrb Pwht Procedure, Asme Rev. ASME B Requirements for Welding Inspection. Ctdcha2 Steam Tables. Din Flange. The Aggregate Demand Curve Economics.

Components of Aggregate Demand Economics. Aggregate Demand Aggregate Supply and Inflation. Ped Guia Final. Astm aam. Universal Robot case Study. Comparison of grades. Class Flanges Bolt Torque Loads. Bolts Torque chart. Type 27 Float Globe Valve. These are important considerations when torquing that the use of through-hardened steel washers will improve the methods either manual or hydraulic are used for bolt tightening. See Appen- Flat washers also promote improved load distribution.

See Appen- dix M for a suitable through-hardened washer specification dix M for a suitable through-hardened washer purchase specifica- guideline. See section 12 Target Torque Determination. The root areas are based on coarse-thread series for sizes M27 and smaller, and 3 mm pitch thread series for sizes M30 and larger. These coefficients were selected to make the computed Target Torques consistent with that needed for a Target Prestress of MPa as independently verified by accurate bolt elongation measurements by several users.

See Appendix K for equivalent nut factors. See Appendix K for equivalent nut factor. For second and subsequent tightening by torquing methods, use of lubricants and torque values as specified for noncoated bolts is recommended. Customary Units See section 12 for instructions on how to use this table. Target Torque, ft-lb Nominal Bolt Size, in. The root areas are based on coarse-thread series for sizes 1 in. These coefficients were selected to make the computed Target Torques consistent with that needed for a Target Prestress of 50 ksi as independently verified by accurate bolt elongation measurements by several users.

No described in d should be limited to the second and portion of the gasket should project into the flow path. When reusing result in stress corrosion cracking or pitting of the flange coated bolts or if lubricant is applied to new or reused surfaces. Do not use tape strips radially across the gasket to coated bolts, the Nut Factor will change and therefore hold it in position.

Do not use grease. When reusing coated proved compounds to the gasket or gasket-contact sur- bolts or if lubricant is applied to new or reused coated faces; protect against inadvertent application to these bolts, the Nut Factor will change and therefore the torque surfaces. If nuts do not hand tighten, check for cause and ing, galvanic corrosion, oxygen auto-ignition, etc. Verify compliance with bolt and nut specifications c Before lubricant is applied to the bolt and nut [materials, diameter, length of bolts, thread pitch, and threads, nuts must run freely by hand past where they nut thickness equal to the nominal bolt diameter heavy will come to rest after tightening.

If nuts will not turn hex series nuts ]. A practice that facilitates joint disassembly the torque increment rounds shown in Table 2 and either see section 15 is to fully engage the nut on one end the companion Table 4 or Table 4.

Alternatives 4 and 5 illustrate alternative group numbering systems and tightening sequences when 8. Guidelines on use of con- small value, thereby resulting in a significant percentage tractors specializing in bolting services are provided in reduction in the post-assembly bolt stress due to normal Appendix G.

This is an Two optional bolt numbering systems that are pre- acceptable and usually required practice. It has been retained there- against excessive flange distortion and gross crushing fore referenced as the Legacy system , and is the basis of the gasket. This range is normally only exceeded in excep- b The alternative numbering system see Table 4. However, any maximum Target Bolt Prestress must location represents the sequential order for tightening be selected to ensure that all three of the joint compo- that bolt; in other words the cross-pattern tightening nents — bolts, flange, and gasket — are stressed within sequence is identified by the assigned bolt number and, acceptable limits.

See Appendix F for joint assembly patterns and Appendix O outlines a method to determine the torque-increment combinations that require less assem- assembly bolt stress for a given flange joint bolt, flange, bly effort than the Table 4 Legacy and the Table 4.

The method is based on a formula and modified Legacy methods. A calculation is provided 9. Check flange gap around circumference for uniformity. If the gap around the circumference is not reasonably uniform, make the appropriate adjustments by selective tightening before proceeding. Check flange gap around circumference for uniform- ity.

Round 4 Continue tightening the bolts, but on a circular clockwise pattern until no further nut rotation occurs at the Round 3 Target Torque value. For indicator bolting, tighten bolts until the indicator rod retraction readings for all bolts are within the specified range. If the flange is subjected to a subsequent test pressure higher than its rating, it may be desirable to repeat this round after the test is completed. Thus, several combinations of spe- para. Use of hydraulic bolt b Four such combinations that are commonly used tensioners results in accurate application of initial axial are listed as follows in ascending order of bolt-load load to the bolts; however, this initial load is decreased control accuracy; however, the implied bolt-load control due to transfer-load losses when the load from the accuracy is dependent on assembly procedures, specific hydraulic bolt tensioner is transferred to the nut on the material properties, and operator training and tensioner side of the joint.

Therefore, if tensioners are competency: employed to obtain the target residual preload, use the 1 tightening with hand or impact wrenches. Hand procedure recommended by personnel who are experi- wrenches are practical only for bolts approximately enced and qualified in controlled bolting services.

Most 25 mm 1 in. Bolt materi- For accuracy, the instrument should be calibrated to als and properties vary within bolt types and this must properly read the bolts being tightened. Information be accounted for when using these methods. For control technique for the joint under consideration bolts constructed with a centerline indicator gage rod should be made based on past experience with similar as shown in Figs.

Hole do not deface marking Diameter, in. Diameter, in. L Bolt Nuts Machine grind end of Washers; two Heavy hex nut; two 8 bolt and indicator rod required per bolt required per bolt A. Weld this end of indicator rod to bolt. Do not grind after welding. For Item Number , see Reference Drawing. Plug weld this end of indicator rod to bolt.

Minimize weld projection beyond end of bolt. Indicator rod material for other bolting shall be same as bolt, or a material having essentially the same coefficient of expansion and a composition suitable for welding to the bolt.

Counterpart illustrations of certain alternative pattern sequences are covered in Ar p root area, mm2 in. See Appendix H for bolt Appendix F. See Appendix round tightening are necessary to counter the elastic interaction H for bolt tensile stress areas. See Appendix I for additional E p modulus of elasticity, MPa ksi information regarding elastic interaction or bolt cross-talk. Leff p effective stretching length, mm in. The con- By the same standard, the effective length It is brought together evenly.

Measure the gap between the noted that bolt stresses computed in accor- flanges at eight equally spaced locations around the dance with Mandatory Appendix 2 of circumference using either a vernier or dial caliper.

If Target Bolt Stress tensile stress area 0. Experi- ence may prove this is sufficient for certain applications but unmeasured tightening is not recommended for intermediate service appli- cations without careful consideration of the risks. The Target Prestress ksi use of substitute gaskets during testing instead of those 50 ksi designed as the final seal for the joint is not recom- mended. See Appendix K for an alternative equipment. This tightness.

The record could include but not neces- solution, sniffer sarily be limited to the following information: b test fluid e.

Compliance with the limitations of the application of these alternatives is essential. Bolts may be grouped and tightened treating these groups as one bolt in the tightening sequence. A suggested number of bolts for a group is the number contained within a 30 deg arc. However, potential gasket damage or flange misalignment should be considered when bolts are grouped. The reported incidents indicated tightening method of disassembly difficulties have typically involved l tool data such as type, model, size, calibration, and condition 7 Experience has shown that, when SA Gr B7 bolts are used, m unanticipated problems and their solutions the galling incidents can be avoided by using higher strength n recommendations for future assembly procedure SA Gr 4 nuts rather than SA Gr 2 or 2H nuts.

Box , Fairfield, NJ cedure is deemed appropriate, start by loosening bolts on a cross-pattern basis to approximately half the initial Special Purpose Applications Hazardous Chemicals Koves, W.

For additional The first two joints assembled by each assembler information contact the Committee Secretary identified at the fol- should be checked for bolt elongation. CommitteepN specified Target Prestress, within specified tolerance for the tools and assembly procedure that were used.

Spiral-wound 3. Flat solid metal 1. Existing industry flatness tolerance limits 1 do not This is found in multipass exchanger joints and is often include an assessment of the ability of the gasket to caused by thermal distortion. In this case, it is conserva- tolerate imperfections. The below tolerances are depen- tive to calculate the overall gaps between the flanges at dent on the type of gasket employed and are categorized points around the circumference and utilize the single- based on the initial compression of the gasket to the flange tolerances as shown in Table D-1M and Table D-1 final assembled load.

Soft gaskets, such as spiral wound, to determine acceptability of the gap. PTFE, fiber, etc. It is not appropriate to classify by are separated into two categories, depending on the gasket type; for example, 1. It is suggested that load- compression test results for the gasket being used are finish will be filled and additional filler exists on the obtained from the gasket manufacturer in order to deter- gasket such that any small imperfections will also be mine which limits may be employed.

It should be noted filled as the gasket is compressed between the flanges. It may not RTJ gasket type are to be regarded as hard gaskets.

D-1 and D-2 for description of T1 and T2 measurement methods. Maximum acceptable pass-partition surface height vs. D-1 Flange Circumferential Variation Tolerance, T1 Align the measurement tool and set the datum at four points around the circumference.

Take measurements around the full circumference to compare to tolerance T1, increment out 6 mm 0. Repeat until full gasket seating surface grey region has been measured. Must not occur in less than a D-3 and D-4 for description of defect measurement. Table D-2 Allowable Defect Depth vs. Width Across Face U. It results in maximum ances may be required for large piping connected to seating surface contact, maximum opportunity for uni- load-sensitive equipment such as machinery.

For form gasket loading, and improves the effectiveness of machinery, refer to API Recommended Practice , all bolt tightening methods. The following guidelines Chapter 6, Sections 4. Only Guidelines for the Design and Installation of Pump minimum or reasonable adjustments should be made Piping Systems. This guideline accounts for the stiffness after the gasket is installed. Tolerance is usually measured by placing a straight f The best practice is to repair the misaligned com- edge on the outside diameter of one flange and ponent by replacing it correctly, removing and reinstall- extending it to or over the mating flange.

This is done ing it in the properly aligned position, or using uniform at four points around the flange, approximately 90 deg heat to relieve the stresses. The tolerance is 1. Follow this rule as closely as possi- closest and farthest distance between the flanges and ble.

External forces have less effect on properly loaded comparing. An acceptable practice is a difference no joints. When aligning the flanges, no single bolt the flanges. E-2 Parallelism Maximum 0. In recent years, there has been successful implementa- tion of joint assembly patterns and torque-increment F These alternative procedures have received formed and less overall effort. This method has been wide acceptance for their performance and are presented successfully applied in limited applications across the along with the limitations for their application to offer full range of gaskets and joint configurations.

A sum- Tightening sequence for Pattern 1 is described in a mary of the procedures is presented in Table F It is through d below.

An example is provided in Fig. A step-by-step example is shown in Fig. Users should critically review the follow- Torque. NOTE: Each of the assembly patterns discussed in this Appendix For hard gaskets,2 a minimum of one pattern Pass is involves incremental tightening in steps that are expressed as per- required. The percentage additional pattern Pass be completed above the mini- values assigned to these intermediate steps are approximate and mum required. Even the Target Torque numbers should be F Within each Pass, intermediate simpler to follow than the Legacy pattern and does not or final, consistency and gradual application of load around the require the assembler to mark the bolt numbers on the joint is the goal.

The patterns are also appli- always be the next bolt to tighten. Pattern 2A of Fig. F-3 cable to other methods of joint assembly, such as tension and follows a star pattern, whereas Pattern 2B applies the uncontrolled.

Figure F-8 presents a step-by- step example of Pattern 2A. F-1 for a bolt joint for use in comparing it with the single-tool alternative procedures that follow. Alternative Assembly Patterns 1, 2, and 3 are pro- 2 Hard gaskets include grooved metal gaskets see Appendix C , vided for single-bolt tightening whereas Alternative corrugated metal gaskets, and flat, solid-metal gaskets.

Tightening sequence for Pattern 3 is described in a d Pass 3 onward: Tighten in circular Passes until through d below. For soft gaskets,1 a minimum of two pattern Passes a Pass 1a: Proceed in the pattern outlined in Fig. F-4 is required. Japan, F-4 Alternative Assembly Pattern 3 Fig. All bolts are now numbered in groups d Pass 1d onward: Tighten in circular Passes at at 90 deg from each of their own number.

Tightening is accomplished in F It is not necessary to do the around a flange has been shown to give equal or even remaining bolts because the purpose of this initial Pass superior tightening parity, and parallel closure, in less is to seat the gasket and square up the flange. Flange time than using a single tool in a cross-pattern see alignment and gap should be checked. The remaining Fig. This method has been successfully applied in bolts will have loosened so time can be saved at this limited applications across the full range of gaskets and point by snugging them again.

Target Torque beginning with the 3s then 4s then 5s then As a practical matter, multibolt tightening works best 6s then returning to the 1s then 2s. This is the check equally distributed around the flange. F-6 Alternative Assembly Pattern 5 NOTE: Assembly of flanges with a large number of bolts will benefit from grouped bolting tightening groups of three to four 1 bolts.

Refer to Table 4. New 17 8 alternative procedures may be developed that may be 16 9 more effective and result in better sealing performance or less assembly effort for a given application.



(PDF) ASME PCC 1 Guidelines for Pressure Boundary Bolted Flange Joint Assembly –

The first edition of ASME PCC-1, Guidelines for Pressure Boundary Bolted Flange One of the activities essential to leak-free per-formance is the joint. for Pressure Boundary Bolted Flange Joint Assembly Asme Pcc April 14, | Author: Anonymous kbPP3CCc | Category: N/A. DOWNLOAD PDF – 4MB. Download Guideline for Pressure Boundary Bolted Flange Joint Assembly Asme Pcc free PDF ebook. Home; ASME PCC BOLTED FLANGE (For Print Out) PDF DOWNLOAD FILE. Recommend Stories. ASME PCC-1 Bolted Flange Joint Assembly. 45 1 KB Read more. Guidelines described in this document apply to pressure-boundary flanged joints with ring-type gaskets that are within the circle enclosed by bolt holes.❿

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