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It does this by firing the motor neurons that sends an electrical pulse to the muscle fibres causing them to contract. The full Golden Cheetah source code is freely available from Github. The further below CP we are the faster we will recover, and for the first 30 seconds of recovery we get the most bang for buck as blood-flow into the muscles is still high from the previous bout. This is what Aerolab in GoldenCheetah does; it plots this virtual elevation from a ride as you adjust estimates for Crr and CdA until you can see a good fit for the elevation profile. But those fast-twitch muscles need more oxygen to generate the same power.❿


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We use complex sources of overlapping energy when we exercise. In the first 10 seconds or so of high output work we draw upon energy stored within the muscles that have immediate availability — so we can sprint all out for seconds without drawing breath and at very high work rates. Interestingly, after about 3 minutes of total rest these stores are largely replenished.

So for the next 50 seconds or so after those phosphates are depleted we primarily get our energy from glycolysis and still without drawing breath. This is the conversion of glucose into lactate. It takes us about 1 hr to recover and remove all the lactate produced, but most of it is gone after about 10 minutes — and we can speed up this clearance through light exercise — which is why a warm-down is a good idea after intense exercise. But now, sadly, after that all-out minute we are going to have to draw breath, because we need the oxygen to power the aerobic energy systems.

First up we get aerobic glycolysis, this is converting glucose into pyruvate by burning it with oxygen in a really complicated 10 stage cycle. The conversion rate is limited by the amount of oxygen the lungs can absorb VO2max and the available fuels. Once all the glucose is gone, we will bonk, which is why gels and powders are high in easily digested glucose — to refuel this process. Lastly, from about minutes we start to rely upon lipolysis that utilises an almost limitless source of energy; fat and water.

So stay hydrated! Our Extended Power Duration Model extracts the likely contribution of these energy systems to predict the energy production or watts per second. It is likely that in the next years current research will help to explain muscular, neural and psychological fatigue or constraints.

These in turn can be used to refine our models. Our legs contain lots of different muscle groups; the quadriceps, hamstrings, calves etc. These muscle groups work together when we walk, run, kick and jump. Each muscle group in turn is comprised of a large number of motor units MU that in turn contain a motor neuron and a collection of muscle fibres.

Our brain triggers a muscle group into action by recruiting as many of its motor units as needed to meet the power we want. It does this by firing the motor neurons that sends an electrical pulse to the muscle fibres causing them to contract. Slow-twitch fibres contain a high number of mitochondria; often referred to as cellular power-plants. They ‘generate’ energy on demand in that complex step process mentioned above its actually called The Krebs Cycle.

In contrast, fast-twitch muscles contain far fewer mitochondria and instead have greater stores of glycogen and the enzymes needed to to produce energy without oxygen. As a result, slow-twitch muscles are fuelled primarily from fat at endurance intensities, but will utilise glycogen at tempo and higher intensities.

With the right kind of training it is possible to ‘convert’ type IIa to type I which improves aerobic endurance performance but at the cost of a loss of some strength. This is typically achieved through lots of hours riding at a lower intensity, below LT1.

Explosive and high intensity workouts will typically signal greater type II muscle fibre growth. So the worst thing for a sprinter to do is ride a 3 week multi-stage race like the Tour de France! As we increase the force we want to generate our brains will recruit more and more of the motor units to meet the demand.

As the demand gets higher we reach a point where all motor units available will be firing. This peripheral fatigue occurs much earlier for fast-twitch than slow-twitch muscles.

So our brain will always recruit from slow-twitch before fast-twitch muscles to meet demand — so the fast twitchers are saved for when we really need them.

Lactate is produced when we burn glucose; aerobically and anaerobically. During intense exercise it is mostly produced by the fast-twitch muscles that utilise glycogen. However, it is not a waste product as was widely believed in the past; it inhibits fat oxidation and also glucose utilisation within our muscle cells — it even reduces muscle shortening and thus peak power.

It is a ‘brake’ to stop us going too hard, helping us to pace for the long run. But of course, we might not want that to happen if we’re winding it up for the finish straight! Further, the mitochondria within our slow-twitch fibres and in fact most of our bodily organs can utilise lactate to create glucose. So our body creates it to regulate our metabolism, but will also use it for fuel, either when we settle down a bit or by “shuttling” it in the bloodstream from the active leg skeletal muscles to the smooth muscles in our heart and lungs.

Lactate also causes an increase in PGC-1a that results in increased mitochondria biogenesis we can also increase PGC-1a signalling and associated mitochondria biogenesis by riding when fasted. This is an exciting area of development that is beginning to suggest that lactate has significant beneficial effects rather than being detrimental. Lactate is always produced even at lower intensities of exercise. Initially our blood flow will clear lactate away as it is produced to the liver, heart, kidneys where it is slowly converted and stored as fuel for re-use.

Additionally whilst we are working at these lower intensities some of the lactate produced is converted back into glucose within the muscles themselves which also helps to clear lactate when we rest or “lift off the gas for a moment”. The reason this only occurs at lower intensity is because it is the slow-twitch muscle fibres that contain a transporter called MCT-1 that controls lactate re-use within the fibre mitochondria.

And slow-twitch muscles will all be busy when we exercise at higher intensities. As we work a little harder lactate will be created a bit faster, but at the same time blood flow increases our heartrate goes up so we keep clearing it. At this point we will feel that we are working, but no more than a tempo pace.

As we continue to go harder, blood lactate accumulation will increase and so will blood flow as our heart rate rises. Performance at the LT1 point has been shown to be an excellent predictor of performance in endurance races like the marathon or a cycle race lasting two or more hours.

From here if we go harder then lactate will build up much faster and we will start to feel a heavy burning sensation in our legs. Performance at the LTP has been shown to be a good predictor of performance in shorter events like the 10KM or a cycling 40km TT, with most athletes able to hold power at the LTP for between 45 and 65 minutes.

It is not such a good predictor of performance in events of a longer duration — hence CP and FTP are not good indicators of endurance performance but as they change it will indicate if the lactate curve is shifting to the left or the right. So, if we can shift the blood lactate curve to the right we can exercise harder for longer at the same level of perceived effort. Or as Greg Lemond famously once said ‘It doesn’t get easier, you just go faster’ — we will still hit the LTP, just at a higher power output.

In order to do this we need to train our bodies to to burn less glucose for fuel, get better at shuttling pyruvate into muscle cells before resorting to producing lactate, and once we have lactate we need to get better at clearing it away or reusing it for fuel. So, increasing the volume and density of mitochondria within the slow-twitch fibres will give us a much greater capacity to re-use pyruvate and less lactate will be produced in the first place.

Secondly, these mitochondria will also help in clearing and reusing lactate. So, training interventions that increase the volume and density of slow-twitch fibres and mitochondria will shift that curve to the right and improve endurance performance. Typically this is the purpose of ‘long slow distance’ where we ride below LT1 at an ‘endurance pace’ for many hours.

It seems such a simple concept. VO2max is the maximum amount of oxygen your body can use during intense exercise, measured in millilitres per kg of weight per minute.

To determine your VO2max you need some expensive lab equipment that measures gas exchange; oxygen in and carbon dioxide out. This is typically measured via a ramp test. It is considered to be the best indicator of an athlete’s cardiovascular fitness and a good predictor of their aerobic performance.

The more oxygen you can use during intense exercise, the more ‘fuel’ you burn and the greater energy you produce. Your VO2max is largely determined through genetics; you won’t become Greg Lemond But VO2max can be improved with the right sort of training interventions and weight management and it remains the best way of tracking improvements in aerobic fitness as well as comparing athletes and determining their likely potential. For those that don’t own a gas exhange analyzer, HR may be an alternative way of tracking changes.

There have been numerous studies that show that HR and oxygen consumption are closely correlated; so it is potentially viable to monitor average power to average HR ratios to track trends in aerobic fitness over time. But take care as HR can fluctuate day to day depending upon hydration, caffeine, sleep and other factors. When we exercise at a constant intensity below LT1 moderate domain oxygen uptake rises over about minutes until it reaches a steady state level that is well below VO2Max.

When we exercise at a slightly higher constant intensity, between LT1 and LT2 heavy domain oxygen uptake will rise over minutes before reaching a steady state. When compared with the moderate effort the heavy effort causes oxygen uptake to rise more slowly and appears to be delayed.

Additionally, the percentage of VO2max that we settle at is higher than you would predict; suggesting efficiency has been impaired in some way. As you might guess, when we exercise at an intensity above LT2 severe domain oxygen uptake, like lactate accumulation, just keeps getting higher until we have to stop due to accumulated oxygen debt and excessive lactate. It does not plateau or reach a steady state. It suggests that the efficiency with which the body uses oxygen to produce energy is progressively lost while exercise continues.

It has even been shown that if exercise is continued at the same intensity for long enough we will eventually reach VO2max. The cause for this is not really known for sure.

It could be caused by the gradual recruitment of fast-twitch fibres as slow-twitch fibres fatigue; as we run out of slow-twitchers the brain uses more and more fast-twitch muscles to maintain the same power. But those fast-twitch muscles need more oxygen to generate the same power. So slowly, our oxygen uptake increases. Either way, for endurance athletes, we need to shift the LT1 and LT2 as far to the right as we can to enable us to work at a higher intensity or power so that what might have been severe becomes heavy, and what was heavy may become moderate.

Greg Lemond was only half right; ‘It might still be hard, and you might go faster, but you can go faster for even longer when you go easy. The Cardiovascular system is responsible for transporting oxygen, nutrients, hormones and waste products around the body.

For example, during exercise it delivers the oxygen from the lungs and delivers fuel to the skeletal muscles and also transports the CO2 back to the lungs and shuttle lactate away to be re-used elsewhere. It’s a truck continually dropping off the food and and taking away the trash and it is indisputably the single biggest determinant of endurance exercise performance.

The heart beats about , times a day pumping blood around the body; typically shifting about litres per minute at rest up to as much as during intense exercise. It is pumped along two paths in a double-loop; the pulmonary circuit to the lungs in order to release CO2 and acquire Oxygen and the systemic circuit to deliver oxygen and fuel and collect CO2 and lactate etc to the brain and body e.

Total blood flow cardiac output is measured as the amount of blood pumped out in one beat stroke volume multiplied by the number of beats per minute heartrate. To meet the demand as we exercise at increasing intensity both heartrate and stroke volume will increase.

At rest 5L might be 72bpm x 70ml where at max we might pump 30L at bpm x ml. Elite and highly trained athletes will have a stroke volume approaching ml and cardiac output at bpm of 40L litres. Studies are beginning to suggest that this pattern may be related to blood volume and training history; the higher your blood volume and fitness then the more likely you are to see a progressive increase all the way to vo2max. Regardless of this, stroke volume is most definitely improved with aerobic training; the size of the ventricles will increase with the right training, and as they become thicker and stronger they make larger and more powerful contractions.

In cycling power terms that means we will see power output increase at the same heartrate as more blood is pumped with each beat. There are three main types of blood vessels; the arteries that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart, veins that carry de-oxygenated blood back to the heart and the capillaries that provide the interface with tissues and muscles. Arteries and veins are flat muscle; they have a layer of muscle surrounding them that contracts and expands to help pump blood around the body.

With training their overall performance will be improved along with some increase in capillary density. Astonishingly, laid end-to-end our blood vessels would stretch ,km. Their role in circulation is managed by the central nervous system and will prioritise blood delivery in response to exercise amongst many other things. For example when cycling at a moderate intensity, this will result in more blood going to working muscles in the lower body our legs whilst leaving other parts of the body e.

Which is why its hard to digest an energy bar when you’re gunning for it! You typically have about litres of blood in your body at any one time which is of course kg of vital weight; certainly not weight you can afford to lose.

Blood plasma contains mostly water, sugar, protein and fats used to fuel exercise. Red blood cells carry mostly oxygen and CO2, so increasing the volume of blood and the percentage of red-blood cells through training or doping can have a dramatic effect on aerobic performance.

The affinity between oxygen O2 and the Haemoglobin Hb in red-blood cells is used to describe the attraction between the two. A higher affinity means more O2 will be bonded to the Hb, when low it means those bonds will break and O2 will be released. As red-blood cells pass through the lungs it is important for this affinity to be high so the blood becomes oxygenated; but as it passes through the legs it is important for this affinity to be low so oxygen is released into the working muscles.

During intense exercise there is a significant difference between the lungs and the capillaries where temperature and levels of blood pH, CO2 and phosphates are much higher. These reduce the O2-Hb affinity in the tissue the capillaries service causing the O2 to be released in the muscles where they are consumed. But there is also some reduction in the lungs too during intense exercise, this limits the amount of oxygenation that can occur.

Worse, as total blood flow is also increased during intense exercise there is less time for the oxygen to enter the blood; all of which leads to a situation where blood is passing through the lungs faster than it can be fully loaded with oxygen — we have reached our limits; any increase in blood flow isn’t going to deliver more oxygen to our muscles. Using near-infrared spectroscopy NIRS devices like the Moxy Muscle Oxygen monitor it is now possible to monitor oxygen delivery and consumption as we ride.

NIRS shines a light through the blood in the capillaries inside muscles to identify the amount of haemoglobin present, and what percentage of that haemoglobin is carrying oxygen. NIRS devices provide two measures; SmO2 — what percentage of haemoglobin is carrying oxygen at the muscle; and tHb — haemoglobin concentration measured at the muscle. Using these two pieces of information we can derive two further metrics; O2Hb — concentration of oxygenated haemoglobin and HHb — the concentration of deoxygenated hydrogenated haemoglobin.

We can then plot HHb and O2Hb alongside, say, power and heartrate to analyse oxygen delivery and extraction during exercise right at the working muscle! Use of this data to assess training and development is an exciting new development that may yield entirely new training and analysis methods in the very near future. For example; there is a direct relationship between oxygen extraction at the muscle and the Lactate Turn Point; we could use data collected from an NIRS device with a power meter during an incremental ramp test to pinpoint power at MLSS with some precision.

These intermittent bouts might occur when we climb a hill, or sprint out of a corner or bridge a gap. In fact almost all training and racing away from the turbo tends to be variable because of this. But, we also know that it will also be replenished over time too. When we work below CP the energy stores within the muscles are restocked. The further below CP we are the faster we will recover, and for the first 30 seconds of recovery we get the most bang for buck as blood-flow into the muscles is still high from the previous bout.

It is particularly useful for assessing workouts for likely failure before attempting them and also for reviewing and comparing intervals within a single workout, even when they are of differing durations. When you first start using a power meter you notice that power tends to move around a lot more than, say, your heart-rate.

When you stop pedalling power drops to zero immediately, but HR may take 30 seconds or so to recover. This means that if we want to use power output as a measure of training stress we will also need to translate those simplistic power readings into something that reflects the associated physiological processes and their half-lives.

Whilst the underlying assumptions and maths differ slightly they both yield a power output that will reflect the stress of the variable power values more accurately than just taking a simple average — they represent a constant power output that places the same stress as the variable data that was recorded.

Given that work in joules can be calculated by multiplying power by time it is very tempting to use this to measure the stress of a ride. But as we get stronger and more efficient those joules become easier to produce, and thus the training stress accrued in the workout should reflect that. To account for this we need some kind of score that takes into account how hard the ride is based upon our current capability.

They reflect the stress by taking into account the relative intensity of the workout. This intensity factor is computed as a ratio of the xPower to our current CP.

This intensity is then multiplied by the ride duration to get an overall stress score; the higher the stress score the bigger impact it will have had and likely the more recovery we will need the day after. But there is still a problem, we know that work at high intensities for short durations elicits a different strain to work at low intensities for longer durations and there comes a point where more pain will give little gain.

To counter this Dr Skiba introduced Ae and An TISS that are weighted differently for low and high intensity work and allow us to track these training stresses separately. The reason we train hard and rest easy is to place stress on the body during training sessions to signal adaptions that occur when we rest.

But finding the right balance between work and rest, training and recovery can be quite difficult. When we place stress on our bodies we cause it to strain; for example when untrained an athlete might find riding for 1 hour at w very hard. The strain on their body may be very high — they will be so destroyed at the end that they need a day or two of rest before considering doing any training.

But after 6 months of regular training the same stress 1 hour at w will apply much less strain on the athletes body and be something they could perform daily. As we get fitter we need to apply more and more stress to elicit the same strain. Also, we all respond differently to training; high-responders will see a more dramatic increase in performance from the same training load that a low-responder does. Calendar even looks nice, and shows within Outlook itself.

Also good. Click that little check mark and it opens a browser window. Why couldn’ this all be done in the same application? Or even better, why couldn’t tasks show IN the calendar where they make the most sense?

You’re looking at what you’ve got going on today, which includes not just whatever’s in the calendar, it also includes whatever things you’ve got to get done. If you can put it all together it would be an easy 5 stars and I might even consider changing my email client even though you guys don’t really do read receipts, which I really appreciate. Outlook is an absolute powerhouse of an email client. I use it to manage multiple email accounts, and it’s wealth of features and integration with other Microsoft software keep me using it.

I would absolutely recommend this app to anyone who asked. There is one issue, however, that makes me rank it four stars instead of five. For some reason, notification badges the little red circle that pops up on the apps icon when there are unread emails doesn’t work in the macOS App Store version.

When I used Outlook downloaded directly from Microsoft’s website, and on my iPad and iOS Outlook apps, notification badges work perfectly well. But on the macOS app store version, even though I have my settings configured to give Outlook max notification priviledges and badge notifications are turned on, badges don’t update until I open the app – then all of the sudden I’ll see the red circle letting me know that I have 6 unread emails.

I’ve verified that this is not an issue with my settings, by double, triple, and quadruple checking that badge notifications are turned on. It really is unfortunate to read important emails later than I otherwise would because I don’t see that there are unread emails in my inbox until opening an app window.

So, Microsoft, if you would just fix this issue that only exists in the macOS app store version of Outlook, I’d love to increase your rating to 5 stars. Have used Outlook forever on various platforms. Every email platform has its plusses and minuses, for me Outlook has always worked better than other options.

Never wrote a review before today though. Was having an issue with a Google account that seemed to be an Outlook issue. Outlook frequently solicits feedback and claims to offer support, but I have learned not to expect any support from Microsoft.

I tried a chat anyway. Amazingly, I got a knowledgeable person right away. Asked intelligent questions, dug into the problem. In the end we determined it was a bug which is what I had expected , he submitted an internal bug report. I would have been impressed just getting that far. I was really surprised when 2 hours later the bug was fixed! Maybe a coincidence, but an issue that had been happening consistently for weeks stopped happening.

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Windows kalender download chip

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