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WaitAsync , such that the latter is now both simpler to maintain and faster with less allocation. NET 6 also sees the long-requested addition of Parallel. On the subject of CancellationToken , the cancellation support in.
NET 6 has also seen performance improvements, both for existing functionality and for new APIs that enable an app to do even better. That led to a really neat but complicated lock-free implementation that involved quite a bit of allocation and overhead. If you were in fact registering and unregistering from the same token from lots of threads in parallel, the implementation was very efficient and resulted in good throughput.
This PR recognizes this reality and reverts the implementation to a much simpler, lighterweight, and faster one that performs better for the vast majority use case while taking a hit if it is actually hammered by multiple threads concurrently.
CancellationToken also has new APIs that help with performance. This gets a bit tricky, however, if CancelAfter is used or if the constructor is used that takes a timeout, as both of those cause a timer to be created, and there are race conditions possible between the timer firing and someone checking to see whether IsCancellationRequested is true to determine whether to reuse the instance.
The new TryReset method avoids this race condition. Those are some of the bigger performance-focused changes in threading.
There are a myriad of smaller ones as well, for example the new Thread. Exchange and Interlocked. CompareExchange when used with nint IntPtr or nuint UIntPtr by enabling them to reuse the existing intrinsics for int and long :.
NET app uses types from the core System namespace, and so improvements to these types often have wide-reaching impact. There have been many performance enhancements to these types in.
Guid is used to provide unique identifiers for any number of things and operations. The ability to create them quickly is important, as is the ability to quickly format and parse them. Previous releases have seen significant improvements on all these fronts, but they get even better in. The net result is a very nice increase in throughput:. I love seeing tables like this. NET 5, and then another 2. NET 5 to. Just one small example of how the platform gets better every release.
NewGuid has never guaranteed that the values generated would employ cryptographically-secure randomness, however as an implementation detail, on Windows NewGuid was implemented with CoCreateGuid which was in turn implemented with CryptGenRandom , and developers starting using Guid. NewGuid as an easy source of randomness seeded by a cryptographically-secure generator. On Linux, Guid.
Moving on in System , Version is another such example of just getting better and better every release. TryFormat had been using a cached StringBuilder for formatting.
For example, it had been using Int TryFormat to format each of the int version components Major , Minor , Build , Revision , but these components are guaranteed to never be negative, so we could actually format them as uint with no difference in behavior.
Why is that helpful here? One of my personal favorite sets of changes in. NET 6 is the overhauling of System. There are many ways performance improvements can come about, and one of the most elusive but also impactful is completely changing the algorithm used to something much faster.
That served. NET well, but it was time for an upgrade. In the intervening years, a myriad number of pseudo-random algorithms have emerged, and for. RandomNumberGenerator should be used instead. However, beyond the algorithm employed, the implementation is now smarter about overheads.
For good or bad reasons, Random was introduced with almost all of its methods virtual. Now in. NET 6, just as for derived types, we fall back to the old implementation if a seed is supplied, otherwise preferring the new algorithm. This sets us up for the future where we can freely change and evolve the algorithm used by new Random as better approaches present themselves.
The Random changes also highlight tradeoffs made in optimizations. The approach of dynamically choosing the implementation to use when the instance is constructed means we incur an extra virtual dispatch on each operation. For the new Random case that utilizes a new, faster algorithm, that overhead is well worth it and is much less than the significant savings incurred.
As the overhead is small on my machine ns and as the scenarios for providing a seed are a minority use case in situations where counting nanoseconds matters passing a specific seed is often used in testing, for example, where repeatable results are required , we accepted the tradeoff.
NET 6 than in. NET 5 and even managed to turn most into improvements. This was done primarily by splitting the compat strategy implementation further into one for new Random seed and one for new DerivedRandom , which enables the former to avoid any virtual dispatch between members and for the latter, derived types can override to provide their own completion implementation.
In addition to changes in the implementation, Random also gained new surface area in. The static Random. Shared property returns a thread-safe instance that can be used from any thread. This means code no longer needs to pay the overheads of creating a new Random instance when it might sporadically want to get a pseudo-random value, nor needs to manage its own scheme for caching and using Random instances in a thread-safe manner. Code can simply do Random. Next, Environment provides access to key information about the current machine and process.
In addition to reducing the amount of code needed in the implementation, this takes advantage of the fact that IndexOf is heavily optimized using a vectorized implementation. The net result is much faster retrieval of all environment variables: on my machine, with the environment variables I have in my environment, I get results like these:. NET 6 also sees new APIs added to Environment to provide not only simpler access to commonly-accessed information, but also much faster access.
To achieve that prior to. NET 5, code would often do something like Process. Id , and. NET 5 added Environment. ProcessId to make that easier and faster. FileName ; now in.
ProcessPath :. There are other new analyzers as well:. IsDefined , Enum. GetName , and Enum. There were several issues to be addressed here. That then meant that internal helpers for doing things like getting the numerical value of an enum were also typed to accept object. When the generic overloads came along in. NET 5, they utilized the same internal helpers, and ended up boxing the strongly-typed input as an implementation detail.
This PR fixes that by adding a strongly-typed internal helper, and it tweaks what existing methods these generic methods delegate to so as to use ones that can operate faster given the strongly-typed nature of the generic methods. The net result is some nice wins. Another very common operation in many apps is DateTime. UtcNow and DateTimeOffset. Those changes impacted all operating systems. But the biggest impact came from negating the regressions incurred when leap seconds support was added in.
When this support was added to. Thankfully, in. Other small but valuable changes have gone into various primitives. ISpanFormattable is already recognized by various string formatting implementations, including that used by string.
Format ; you can see the impact of these interface implementations with a little benchmark, which gets better on. For many apps and services, creating and manipulating arrays, strings, and spans represent a significant portion of their processing, and lot of effort goes into finding ways to continually drive down the costs of these operations. NET 6 is no exception. The current Array. Clear signature accepts the Array to clear, the starting position, and the number of elements to clear.
However, if you look at usage, the vast majority use case is with code like Array. Clear array, 0, array. Length … in other words, clearing the whole array.
Fill as the underlying implementation for Array. Interestingly, Array. Arrays of reference types in. NET are covariant, meaning given a reference type B that derives from A , you can write code like:. ArrayTypeMismatchException: Attempted to access an element as a type incompatible with the array. This also incurs measurable overhead every time an element is stored into an array of most reference types. The check, which is removed entirely by the JIT for value types and which is optimized heavily by the JIT for reference types, validates that the T specified matches the concrete type of the array.
As an example, if you write this code:. Why is this relevant to Array. If Array. Instead, Array. Shuffle to optimize the implementation of the internal HexConverter. EncodeToUtf16 which is used in a few places, including the public Convert. ToHexString :. Replace String, String. In this case, the PR improves three specific cases significantly:.
Our bet, based on reviewing use cases in a variety of code bases, is this overall will be a very positive win. Also for vectorization, previous. NET releases saw vectorization added to various algorithms in System.
NET 6 is string. One of the biggest string-related improvements, though, comes from the new interpolated string handler support in C 10 and. If I write:. With C 10 and. You can see the impact of the changes with the aforementioned examples turned into a benchmark:. For an in-depth look, including discussion of various custom interpolated string handlers built-in to. Performance improvements can manifest in many ways: increasing throughput, reducing working set, reducing latencies, increasing startup speeds, lowering size on disk, and so on.
Anyone paying attention to the performance of. NET will also notice a focus on reducing allocation. Beyond that, though, there are almost always real tradeoffs. In fact, it can make things worse, such as if the overhead of renting and returning from the pool is higher than expected especially if it incurs synchronization costs , if it leads to cache problems as something returned on one NUMA node ends up being consumed from another, if it leads to GCs taking longer by increasing the number of references from Gen1 or Gen2 objects to Gen0 objects, and so on.
However, one place that pooling has shown to be quite effective is with arrays, in particular larger arrays of value types e. Shared being used everywhere. Shared being as efficient as possible, and this release sees several impactful improvements in this area.
Probably the most visible change in this area in. Shared will cache. But then that trimming was added, and the limit was never revisited… until now. The pool is also split into two layers. The first layer is stored in thread-local storage, where each thread can store at most one array of each bucket size. The second layer is itself split into Environment. ProcessorCount stacks, each of which is logically associated with one core, and each of which is individually synchronized.
Upon returning an array, a similar path is followed, with the code first trying to return to the thread-local slot, and then proceeding to try to find space in one of the stacks. The trimming implementation in. This can lead to some rarely-used arrays sticking around for a very long time, negatively impacting working set.
On top of these changes around what can be cached and for how long, more typical performance optimizations have also been done. This entailed paying attention to where and why bounds checks were happening and avoiding them where possible, ordering checks performed to prioritize common cases e.
A good deal of effort in. NET 6 has gone into fixing the performance of one of the oldest types in. NET: FileStream. Every app and service reads and writes files. Or when flushing its buffer, even when flushing asynchronously, those flushes would end up doing synchronous writes. Combined, this has meant that, with a few exceptions, the FileStream code has remained largely untouched, until now.
NET 6 sees FileStream entirely rewritten, and in the process, all of these issues resolved. All the while, additional PRs were flowing in to optimize various conditions. In the end, all of this adds up to huge maintainability benefits for FileStream , huge performance improvements for FileStream in particular for but not limited to asynchronous operations , and much better scalability for FileStream.
Here are just a few microbenchmarks to highlight some of the impact:. All of these static methods accept a SafeFileHandle , which can now be obtained from the new File. OpenHandle method. NET Blog soon. WriteAllTextAsync and makes it faster with less allocation this benchmark of course also benefits from the FileStream improvements:. That upgrade brings with it various performance improvements , including code paths that make better use of intrinsics.
Unfortunately, as an implementation detail, DeflateStream was in fact trying to return as much data as was requested, by issuing as many reads against the underlying stream as it needed to in order to make that happen, stopping only when it decoded a sufficient amount of data to satisfy the request or hit EOF end of file on the underlying stream.
This is a problem for multiple reasons. Second, and more impactful, is it effectively prevents DeflateStream from being used in any bidirectional communication scenario. Imagine a DeflateStream wrapped around a NetworkStream , and the stream is being used to send and receive compressed messages to and from a remote party.
The PR also fixes one more performance-related thing. One issue scalable web servers need to be cognizant of is memory utilization. Moving on, for System.
Pipelines , a couple of PRs improved performance. Beyond that, there were a variety of small improvements. ValidateBufferArguments and Stream. ValidateCopyToArguments , which, in addition to eliminating duplicated code and helping to ensure consistency of behavior, helps to streamline the validation logic using a shared, efficient implementation of the relevant checks. It goes without saying that networking is at the heart of services and most significant apps today, and so improvements in networking performance are critical to the platform.
At the bottom of the networking stack, we have System. One of my favorite sets of changes in this release is that we finally rid the System. SendAsync and Socket. These changes not only reduced the size of the assembly, reduced dependencies from System. Then for. None as an argument to ConnectAsync and AcceptAsync.
Passing CancellationToken. With that, I get the following, for an additional reduction:. Then, as in the previous example, I can try adding in the additional CancellationToken argument:. Other new overloads have also been added in. The net result is a nice reduction in overhead for these operations, beyond the improvements in usability. The internal SocketPal.
The fewer and smaller fields we can have on these state machines, the smaller the resulting allocation will be for asynchronously completing async methods. Just focusing on fields, the C compiler will produce for Example1 a type like this:. The answer has to do with order of operations. FromResult That means it must compute Process someParameter before it computes await Task. But Process someParameter returns an int value; where should that be stored while await Task. FromResult 42 is being processed?
On the state machine. So, back to the cited PR. Look familiar? Dns is a relatively thin wrapper for OS functionality. It provides both synchronous and asynchronous APIs. This ends up blocking that other thread for the duration of the operation, which inherently limits scalability.
It can also be a real bottleneck for something like DNS. Typically an operating system will cache some amount of DNS data, but in cases where a request is made for unavailable data, the OS has to reach out across the network to a DNS server to obtain it.
If lots of requests are made concurrently for the same non-cached address, that can starve the pool with all of the operations performing the exact same request. This adds a small amount of overhead for individual operations, but significantly reduces the overhead in the bursty, problematic scenarios.
By default, operations on Dns can return both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses, but if you know you only care about one or the other, you can now be explicit about it. Doing so can save on both the amount of data transferred and the resulting allocations to hand back that data. Moving up the stack, we start getting into specifying URLs, which typically uses System. Uri instances are created in many places, and being able to create them more quickly and with less GC impact is a boon for end-to-end performance of networking-related code.
The internal Uri. ReCreateParts method is the workhorse behind a lot of the public Uri surface area, and is responsible for formatting into a string whatever parts of the Uri have been requested e.
Path UriComponents. Query UriComponents. Fragment while also factoring in desired escaping e. It also unfortunately had quite a knack for allocating char arrays. Shared for longer lengths, while also cleaning up some code paths to make them a bit more streamlined.
The impact of this is visible in these benchmarks:. UriBuilder is also used in some applications to compose Uri instances. As a result, UriBuilder is now also lighterweight for most uses:. As noted previously, I love seeing this continual march of progress, with every release the exact same API getting faster and faster, as more and more opportunities are discovered, new capabilities of the underlying platform utilized, code generation improving, and on.
Now we get to HttpClient. One key area is around header management. Previous releases saw a lot of effort applied to driving down the overheads of the HTTP stack, but the public API for headers forced a particular set of work and allocations to be performed. But the biggest impact in this area comes from the addition of the new HttpHeaders. This has both a functional and a performance benefit. Now if we run Enumerate and EnumerateNew on. SocketsHttpHandler maintains a pool of connections that remain open to the server and that it can use to service future requests.
By default, it needs to scavenge this pool periodically, to close connections that have been around for too long or that, more relevant to this discussion, the server has chosen to close. NET 5 that enables an arbitrary Stream to be provided for use with a connection, there may not even be a Socket involved at all.
In such situations, the only way we can be notified of a connection being closed is to perform a read on the connection. Thus, if we were unable to poll the socket directly, we would issue an asynchronous read which would then be used as the first read as part of handling the next request on that connection , and the scavenging logic could check the task for that read to see whether it had completed erroneously.
Now comes the problem. The fix is to use zero-byte reads. Then, only once that operation has completed, the actual initial read is issued, which is both necessary to actually get the first batch of response data, but also to handle arbitrary Stream s that may return immediately from a zero-byte read without actually waiting. SslStream has long supported zero-byte reads on it, but it did so by in turn issuing a read on the stream it wraps using its internal read buffer.
That means SslStream was potentially itself holding onto a valuable buffer, and on Windows pinning it, even though that was unnecessary. SslStream has seen multiple other performance-related PRs come through for. This can help reduce the chattiness of ReadAsync calls, making better use of buffer space to reduce frequency of calls.
The question then is, what happens to that request if, while waiting for the new connection to be established, one of the existing connections becomes available? Up until now, that request would just wait for and use the new connection. This should both improve latency and response time, and potentially reduce the number of connections needed in the pool, thus saving memory and networking resources.
This has led us to discover where things worked well and where more work was needed. This should significantly help with performance in particular on networks with reasonably-high bandwidth along with some meaningful delay in communications e.
The original code employed a single, long array of tuples, which required the C compiler to generate a very large function for initializing each element of the array; the PR changed that to instead be two blittable uint arrays that are cheaply stored in the binary. CreateFromStream was introduced in. Thus, any improvements we make to that managed implementation the internal ManagedWebSocket benefit both client and server.
But there were two significant changes worth examining in more detail. The first is websocket compression. Adding compression increases the CPU cost of sending and receiving, but it decreases the amount of data sent and received, which can in turn decrease the overall cost of communication, especially as networking latency increases.
This app is creating a loopback socket connection and then layering on top of that a websocket connection created using WebSocket. That way, we can see how much data ends up actually being sent. When I run this, I get results like the following:. That could be a good tradeoff if communicating over a real network with longer latencies, where the additional few hundred milliseconds to perform the compression and decompression is minimal compared to the cost of sending and receiving an additional 10MB.
The second is amortized zero-allocation websocket receiving. However, as previously discussed, C 10 and. NET 6 now have opt-in support for pooling with async methods. On my logical-core machine, this code:. Reflection provides a very powerful mechanism for inspecting metadata about. NET assemblies and invoking functionality in those assemblies. That mechanism can incur non-trivial expense, however. While functionality exists to avoid that overhead for repeated calls e.
NET 6 does in multiple ways. A variety of PRs targeted reducing the overhead involved in inspecting attributes on. NET types and members. Code often looks up information beyond attributes, and it can be helpful for performance to special-case common patterns. A given MethodInfo will cache the array, but this would still result in an extra array for every individual method inspected. This PR fixes that. Reflection is valuable not just for getting metadata but also for invoking members.
Reflection is going to pass the object of arguments you pass to MethodInfo. However, if a caller erroneously mutated the array concurrently with the reflection call, such mutation could happen after the type checks occurred, enabling type safety to be violated, anyway.
Another very common form of dynamic invocation is when creating new instances via Activator. CreateInstance , which is usable directly but is also employed by the C compiler to implement the new constraint on generic parameters. CreateInstance implementation in the runtime, employing a per-type cache of function pointers that can be used to quickly allocate an uninitialized object of the relevant type and invoke its constructor.
Another common operation is creating closed generic types from open ones, e. Finally, sometimes optimizations are all about deleting code and just calling something else that already exists. IsPrimitive measurably faster:. Of course, reflection extends beyond just the core reflection APIs, and a number of PRs have gone in to improving areas of reflection higher in the stack.
DispatchProxy , for example. Even as a lot of the low-hanging fruit was picked in previous releases, developers contributing to. NET 6 have still managed to find meaningful improvements, some in the form of optimizing existing APIs, and some in the form of new APIs developers can use to make their own code fly. The PR improves the performance of creating one dictionary from another, by enabling the common case of the source dictionary and the new dictionary sharing a key comparer to copy the underlying buckets without rehashing.
And CollectionMarshal. These can be used to avoid duplicate lookups as well as avoid potentially expensive struct value copies. Indexing into these collections performs a binary search through a tree of nodes, and each layer of the traversal was performing a range check on the index.
But for all but the entry point check, that range validation is duplicative and can be removed, which is exactly what the PR does:. NET 5 , while also reducing code duplication. WebDAV: Web-based Distribution Authoring and Versioning is added to allow users to manage and edit files on DiskStation remotely with the support of content metadata and overwrite protection.
It helps a disperse group of users around the world work on the same project as a team, which will greatly increase the effectiveness of group collaboration. View the complete list here.
The test results are listed below:. File Station is now only supported on the customized port to provide independent access to individuals. Download DSM 2. The “Router Configuration” feature is also available on the management UI under “Internet Connection” category, which accomplishes the port forwarding tasks on the router for you. View the supported router list here.
Download Station Enhancements: MegaUpload download with a premium account is supported. Wireless Support: With the supported wireless dongles, the DiskStation will be accessible via Both the infrastructure and Ad-Hoc modes are supported.
View the supported USB wireless dongle list here. After firmware upgrade, the system will automatically create additional thumbnails for all photos stored in “photo” shared folder. Photo Station service will not be affected. This firmware upgrade is intended for specific cases only.
Under normal circumstances, it is not necessary to upgrade to this version. Windows Mobile 6. UPS Setting Enhancement: You can now set up the time period before the server enters safe mode after a power failure. And NTFS disks are not supported. This bug will be fixed in later version of Synology Assistant. To ensure proper operation of Photo Station, using File Station 2 to modify sub-folder privileges for “photo” shared folder is disabled.
This firmware upgrade is intended for users advised by Synology Online Support. Enhanced Photo Station 3 : The performance of thumbnail browsing has been improved. The Google AdSense, calendar-based article browsing, and sticky articles are added to the blogging system.
The following file formats are supported from this version on. Version: 7. Version: 6. A way to handle such a situation is via configuring an AJAX response page. The AJAX response page will cause a pop-up to appear on the client browser, informing them that the request has been blocked.
What we have been seeing so far has been related to making changes by actually overriding specific configuration values. What would happen in the case we wanted to remove a specific configuration entity from the policy.
Deleting this entity from the declarative configuration file will simply mean that this entity will be left intact when the policy is rebuilt, meaning that the entity is still in the disallowed file types list.
To resolve such situations, we have a modifications section where we can force modification where otherwise it is not possible using direct declarative configuration. In this example, we specify that we wish to remove the file type log from the disallowed file types list. External references in policy are defined as any code blocks that can be used as part of the policy without being explicitly pasted within the policy file.
This means that you can have a set of pre-defined configurations for parts of the policy, and you can incorporate them as part of the policy by simply referencing them. This would save a lot of overhead having to concentrate everything into a single policy file. A perfect use case for external references is when you wish to build a dynamic policy that depends on moving parts. You can have code create and populate specific files with the configuration relevant to your policy, and then compile the policy to include the latest version of these files, ensuring that your policy is always up to date when it comes to a constantly changing environment.
Note : Any update of a single file referenced in the policy will not trigger a policy compilation. For example, modifications section is replaced by modificationsReference and data-guard is replaced by dataGuardReference. This is a very useful method when trying to combine or consolidate parts of the policy that are present on different server machines. Note : You need to make sure that the server where the resource files are located is always available when you are compiling your policy.
In this example, we are creating a skeleton policy, then enabling the file type violation. However, we do not wish to specify the file types as these file types depend on an app that defines these types. We therefore wish to have this section populated from an external reference. Note that the filetypes section is replaced by the filetypeReference section.
For a list of all the available reference options, consult the documentation declarative section. For the content of the file itself, it is an extension of the original JSON format for the policy, as if this section was cut from the policy and pasted into the file.
Make sure that the webserver you are downloading the resources from does also support HTTPS protocol and has certificates setup properly. In this configuration, we are completely satisfied with the basic default policy, and we wish to use it as is. However, we wish to define a custom response page using an external file located on an HTTPS web server.
The external reference file contains our custom response page configuration. In this example, we would like to enable all attack signatures.
Yet, we want to exclude specific signatures from being enforced. Note that file references can only be on the local machine: you cannot use remote hosts! To do this, we reference a local file on the machine. If, for any reason, the configuration was done incorrectly, the policy compilation process will fail with the following error:.
The error details that follow will depend on the exact situation causing the policy compilation to fail. If the policy compilation process fails, the compiler will revert to the last working policy and all the changes for the last policy compilation attempt will be lost.
Using a spec file simplifies the work of implementing API protection. The configuration is similar to External References.
The link option is also available in the openApiFileReference property and synonymous with the one above in open-api-files. File reference refers to accessing local resources on the same machine. See the External References for details. Roughly it includes:. Here is the policy with the profile:. The profile in this example enables checking of attack signatures and disallowed metacharacters in the string-typed fields within the service messages.
Two signatures are disabled. The profile also limits the size of the messages to KB and disallows fields that are not defined in the IDL files. The main IDL file, album. The file it imports, messages.
In order for App Protect to be able to match it to the import statement you need to specify its directory as we did here with the importUrl property. An alternative and probably more convenient way to specify all the IDL files, the primary and all its imports, direct and indirect, is to bundle them into a single tar file in the same directory structure as they are expected by the import statements. In this case you will have to specify which of the files in the tarball is the primary one.
The supported formats are tar and tgz. App Protect will identify the file type automatically tar, gzipped tar or JSON and handle it accordingly. Following the above example:. This is required if you want to accept only requests pertaining to the gRPC services exposed by your apps. If you decide to leave this catch-all URL, App Protect will accept other traffic including gRPC requests, applying policy checks such as signature detection.
However, it will not apply any gRPC-specific protection on them. However, in the sample policy above, the profile was apparently not associated with any URL and yet the profile is active. How did this happen? For example you can turn off meta character checks by adding “metacharsOnUrlCheck”: false within the respective URL entry. A gRPC error response page is returned when a request is blocked. You can customize any of these two by configuring a custom gRPC response page in your policy.
This feature is disabled by default and can be enabled by setting decodeStringValuesAsBase64 to enabled. Using Baseencoded strings for binary data is usually not a good practice but, if the protected app still does that, then enable Base64 detection. Currently App Protect supports only unary services and does not accept streaming services on either side, client or server.
Profiles with IDL files that include services with the keyword stream will be rejected. You can still give basic protection to gRPC streaming services by checking for Attack Signatures without trying to parse the messages or applying any other gRPC enforcement. The supported Protocol Buffer version is 3.
Version 2 is not supported. Hence any obsolete feature of version 2, such as message extensions in the IDL files, will be rejected. If Server Reflection support is required, App Protect must be disabled on the reflection URIs by adding a location block such as this:. There are three violations that are specific to gRPC. They are all enabled in the default policy. See also the Violations section. See Available Security Log Attributes. Global configuration consists of a series of nginx. In the case where the URL itself has violations such as bad unescape or illegal metacharacter then the request might be assigned to a location in which NGINX App Protect WAF is disabled or has a relaxed policy that does not detect these violations.
Such malicious requests will be allowed without inspection. In order to avoid this, it is recommended to have a basic policy enabled at the http scope or at least at the server scope to process malicious requests in a more complete manner. In that case all the instances must share the same configuration files.
It is your responsibility to synchronize the files on all instances. You also have to provide a load balancing solution in front of those instances such as another NGINX instance. As the argument of this directive, put a random alphanumeric string of at least 20 characters length but not more than characters.
These cookies are used for various purposes such as validating the integrity of the cookies generated by the application. In the absence of this directive, App Protect generates a random string by itself. In that case, each instance will have a different seed.
A cookie created and encrypted on one instance of App Protect will fail to be decrypted when sent by the same client to another App Protect instance having a different encryption key. If the App Protect daemons are down or disconnected from the NGINX workers, there are two modes of operation until they are up and connected again:. Similar to failure mode, you can decide what to do with those requests. App Protect violations are rated by the App Protect algorithms to help distinguish between attacks and potential false positive alerts.
A violation rating is a numerical rating that our algorithms give to requests based on the presence of violation s. Each violation type and severity contributes to the calculation of the final rating. The final rating then defines the action taken for the specific request.
As per the default policy, any violation rating of 1, 2 and 3 will not cause the request to be blocked and only a log will be generated with alerted status.
If the violation rating is 4 or 5, the request is blocked: a blocking page is displayed and a log generated for the transaction with blocked status. Violation ratings are displayed in the logs by default. The table specifies which.
Note: In this case, the request is always blocked regardless of the App Protect policy. The following table specifies the Evasion Techniques sub-violation settings.
Each signature, factory or user-defined, and violation has an Attack Type , the attack vector it protects from. When you create a user-defined signature you associate it with the most appropriate attack type from the list below. If you do not find an Attack Type that matches the threat for which your signature was written, use Other Application Activity Attack Type. Attach Types are also useful as part of the filter in user-defined signature sets.
Following is the full list of Attack Types supported in App Protect. Use the name of the Attack Type to reference it within the signature or signature set filter. In the above example we piped the output to jq utility which needs to be installed separately to get the output with proper indentation.
Note that if the script is run without the required switches and their corresponding arguments, it will display the help message. The tool can optionally accept a tag argument as an input. Otherwise, the default tag value user-defined-signatures is assigned to the exported JSON file.
This tool can be deployed and used independently of the NGINX App Protect WAF deployment, by installing the compiler package as a standalone , in order to generate a report about either the default signatures included in the package, or signatures included in a signature update package. The latter can be obtained by running the tool on a standalone compiler deployment, after installing a new signature update package on top of the compiler package. These reports can then be compared for greater clarity regarding signature updates.
The policy configuration defines the information contained in the Security log, such as whether requests are passed, blocked or alerted, due to violations, attack signatures, and other criteria.
Configuration contexts : nginx. File Destination? You can set the destination to either stderr , or an absolute path to a local file, or you can use syslog, and redirect the log with Netcat and pipe:. The directive can be at the following contexts: http , server and location. When not present at a certain context, the directive is inherited from the context above it: location from server , then from http.
If there is no directive at any of these context levels, then the logging is disabled for the respective context. The directive can be at the following context levels: http , server and location. Multiple occurrences of this directive are allowed in a single context, and all the configured logs in this context will be used.
When not present in a certain context, all the directives are inherited from the context above it: location from server , then from http. If there is no directive at any of these context levels, but logging is enabled then the default is used for the respective context.
This part of the configuration file specifies what will be logged, the format of the message, and size restrictions. Content is mandatory. If the entire content field or any of its attributes are not defined, system-defined default values are used. For example: first,second,third will become [first::second::third].
See details there. The syslog transport is over TCP. The local syslog server will forward them over a secure channel to the remote destination. We recommend you use mutual authentication TLS mTLS to avoid any man-in-the-middle attacks attempting to hijack or alter the logs on their way. It is not guaranteed that all requests that match the filters will indeed reach their destination especially if the system is overwhelmed by the incoming traffic.
In this case some log records may be dropped. The table below lists attributes that are generated in the security logs. When using customized logs i. Per each attribute we show whether it is included in each of the predefined formats: default and grpc.
When the NGINX App Protect policy is enforced in Transparent Mode, it is easier to know which transactions would be blocked if the Blocking Mode is set to True and also would be able to know which violations and signatures intended for the transaction to be blocked. This field contains the violations and applicable signature names and IDs associated with a transaction. For example, the following configuration is unsupported, but in the examples above you can find examples of work arounds for these features.
Configuration Guide. Declarative Policy. Troubleshooting Guide. An example can be found in Configure Static Location. The user can disable any of them or add other sets. Signature attack for Server Technologies Support adding signatures per added server technology. Threat Campaigns These are patterns that detect all the known attack campaigns. They are very accurate and have almost no false positives, but are very specific and do not detect malicious traffic that is not part of those campaigns.
The default policy enables threat campaigns but it is possible to disable it through the respective violation. It is possible to enable any of these two. These checks cannot be disabled. Evasion Techniques All evasion techniques are enabled by default and each can be disabled.
These include directory traversal, bad escaped character and more. Disabled by default but can be enabled. Metacharacters indicate suspicious traffic, but not necessarily an actual threat.
It is the combination of meta characters, attack signatures and other violations that indicates an actual threat that should be blocked and this is determined by Violation Rating.
See section below. Disallowed file type extension Support any file type. Default includes a predefined list of file types.
See Disallowed File Types list below. Cookie enforcement By default all cookies are allowed and not enforced for integrity. The user can add specific cookies, wildcards or explicit, that will be enforced for integrity. It is also possible to set the cookie attributes: HttpOnly, Secure and SameSite for cookies found in the response. It is possible to add more such parameters. Default policy checks maximum structure depth. JSON parameterization is not supported.
It is possible to enable more size restrictions: maximum total length of XML data, maximum number of elements are more. By default all the standard HTTP methods are allowed. Trust XFF header Disabled by default. User can enable it and optionally add a list of custom XFF headers. In addition, it enforces size restrictions and prohibition of unknown fields.
In previous versions, requests greater than 10 MB would be allowed. Feature Description Enforcement by Violation Rating By default block requests that are declared as threats, that is, their Violation Rating is 4 or 5. It is possible to change this behavior: either disable enforcement by Violation Rating or block also request with Violation Rating 3 – needs examination.
See section on basic configuration below. By default all the checks are enabled with the exception of POST data and whole request. The user can enable or disable every check and customize the size limits. Malformed cookie Requests with cookies that are not RFC compliant are blocked by default.
This can be disabled. Status code restriction Illegal status code in the range of 4xx and 5xx. By default only these are allowed: , , , , , The user can modify this list or disable the check altogether.
Blocking pages The user can customize all blocking pages. By default the AJAX response pages are disabled, but the user can enable them. All signatures in the included sets are enabled. This script will output the schema to a file named policy. Bot Name Description Ask Ask. Jenkins Jenkins is an open source automation server written in Java.
Jenkins helps to automate the non-human part of the software development process, with continuous integration and facilitating technical aspects of continuous delivery. It is a server-based system that runs in servlet containers such as Apache Tomcat. Launched in , SharePoint is primarily sold as a document management and storage system, but the product is highly configurable and usage varies substantially among organizations. Yes Python Python is an interpreted, high-level, general-purpose programming language.
Created by Guido van Rossum and first released in , Python has a design philosophy that emphasizes code readability, notably using significant whitespace.
It provides constructs that enable clear programming on both small and large scales. Yes Oracle Identity Manager Oracle Identity Manager OIM enables enterprises to manage the entire user lifecycle across all enterprise resources both within and beyond a firewall.
Within Oracle Identity Management it provides a mechanism for implementing the user-management aspects of a corporate policy. Yes Spring Boot Spring Boot makes it easy to create Spring-powered, production-grade applications and services with absolute minimum fuss. It takes an opinionated view of the Spring platform so that new and existing users can quickly get to the bits they need.
In contrast to many other database management systems, SQLite is not a client-server database engine. Rather, it is embedded into the end program. Yes Handlebars Handlebars provides the power necessary to let you build semantic templates effectively with no frustration. No Mustache Mustache is a simple web template system. No Prototype Prototype takes the complexity out of client-side web programming.
Built to solve real-world problems, it adds useful extensions to the browser scripting environment and provides elegant APIs around the clumsy interfaces of Ajax and the Document Object Model. It ships with an updated set of advanced value-add features designed to optimize productivity, performance, scalability and reliability. No Redis Redis is an open source in-memory data structure project implementing a distributed, in-memory key-value database with optional durability. Redis supports different kinds of abstract data structures, such as strings, lists, maps, sets, sorted sets, hyperloglogs, bitmaps, streams and spatial indexes.
React can be used as a base in the development of single-page or mobile applications. It is released under the free, open source MIT License. No Laravel Laravel is a free, open source PHP web framework, created by Taylor Otwell and intended for the development of web applications following the model-view-controller architectural pattern and based on Symfony. Other than a few native libraries, everything is Java source that can be built on any supported platform with the included GWT Ant build files.
It is a language which is also characterized as dynamic, weakly typed, prototype-based and multi-paradigm. Yes Django Django is a free and open source web framework, written in Python, which follows the model-view-template MVT architectural pattern. Yes Node. Yes Citrix Citrix Systems, Inc. Yes CGI Common Gateway Interface CGI offers a standard protocol for web servers to interface with executable programs running on a server that generate web pages dynamically.
Yes Proxy Servers A proxy server is a server a computer system or an application that acts as an intermediary for requests from clients seeking resources from other servers. Yes Cisco Cisco Systems, Inc. Yes PHP PHP is a server-side scripting language designed primarily for web development but is also used as a general-purpose programming language. Yes Microsoft Windows Microsoft Windows or simply Windows is a meta-family of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.
Yes ASP. NET is an open source server-side web application framework designed for web development to produce dynamic web pages. System Name Description Other Web Server Web Servers that are not covered by any of the specific server technologies System Independent Used to denote signatures that apply to any server technology Various Systems Server-side systems not covered by any of the existing server technologies or the other systems here Generic Database Database systems that are not covered by any of the specific server technologies.
Declarative Name Description android The native Android browser. When the high threshold is exceeded the system enters failure mode until memory drops below the low threshold. Setting the value of disables this feature. Note : The system does not enter failure mode during policy compilation after reload even if the threshold is exceeded.
There are two values: pass : Pass the request without App Protect Enforcer inspection, a. The string should contain only alphanumeric characters and be no longer than characters. No response page is returned, a. Multiple instances of this directive are supported. In order to import multiple signatures files, each file must have a different tag. The time unit is seconds. Directive Name Syntax Functionality nginx. Blocks modified requests. Determined per signature set. Would trigger Violation Rating of 5.
An old timestamp indicates that a client session has expired.
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A version of Office comes included on Windows RT devices. Microsoft Office comes in twelve different editions, including three editions for retail outlets, two editions for volume licensing. Office Web Apps are available free of charge on the web although enterprises may obtain on-premises installations for a price.
Microsoft Office applications may be obtained individually; this includes Microsoft Visio, Microsoft Project and Microsoft SharePoint Designer which are not included in any of the twelve editions. Next article How to Install Windows 8. All programs were of same version that is Word 7. Office 95 was available in two versions called Office 95 Standard and Office 95 professional. Office professional also came with Microsoft Access 7. While Microsoft Office 97 which came out in had numerous improvements in all programs.
Such as the grammar checking feature. This version also included Office Assistant. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Microsoft Office for Windows.
Developer :. Microsoft Office. Download MB. Microsoft Office 3. It constituted of Word 2. This version came out in and contained Word 6. Released by Microsoft in , this version incorporated various advanced features like HTML document creation and publishing, Internet integration, personalized menus and toolbars, upgraded office assistant etc.
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This version of Microsoft office came out with a new logo and was more colorful and attractive. This version came out for the world on January 30, and had a new Graphical user Interfaced known as Fluent User Interface and the older menus and toolbars were replaced with a tabbed toolbar called Ribbon and a new file format came out known as XML which became the default file format for users.
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Get help. Wednesday, June 15, By Jamal Hossain Shuvo. August 25, Microsoft Office formerly Office 15 is a version of Microsoft Office, a productivity suite for Microsoft Windows. It is the successor of Microsoft Office and includes extended file format support, user interface updates and support for touch among its new features.
Office is suitable for IA and x64 systems and requires Windows 7, Windows Server R2 or a later version of either. A version of Office comes included on Windows RT devices. Microsoft Office comes in twelve different editions, including three editions for retail outlets, two editions for volume licensing. Office Web Apps are available free of charge on the web although enterprises may obtain on-premises installations for a price.
Microsoft Office applications may be obtained individually; this includes Microsoft Visio, Microsoft Project and Microsoft SharePoint Designer which are not included in any of the twelve editions. Next article How to Install Windows 8. Jamal Hossain Shuvo. Read more. Establish a Requirement for Speed Please enter your comment! Please enter your name here. Microsoft Office for Windows. Developer :. Microsoft Office. Download MB. Microsoft Office 3. It constituted of Word 2. This version came out in and contained Word 6.
Released by Microsoft in , this version incorporated various advanced features like HTML document creation and publishing, Internet integration, personalized menus and toolbars, upgraded office assistant etc. Five editions were released: Standard, Small business, Professional, Premium and developer. Office supported Windows NT 3. Office is compatible with Windows 95, Windows NT 4.
Office was the last to support Windows Microsoft Office XP came out in and again surprised the world with its smart features. It was released in conjunction with Windows XP. Smart tag technology, Safe mode feature, handwriting recognition, voice command integration and text dictation facilities were some of the new features introduced in Office XP.
It was the first version that required Microsoft Office Product activation all across the globe. This version of Microsoft office came out with a new logo and was more colorful and attractive. This version came out for the world on January 30, and had a new Graphical user Interfaced known as Fluent User Interface and the older menus and toolbars were replaced with a tabbed toolbar called Ribbon and a new file format came out known as XML which became the default file format for users.
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